The Qur'an on Celestial Bodies

Allah says: Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see (13:2)

Modern day studies of the universe affirm that there is great energy in matter, its components and celestial bodies. Allah can destroy it and recreate it. Scientists have discovered different forms of powerful energy which flow in the heavens and earth. These energies are:

  • Strong nuclear energy: This energy holds subatomic particles together; which includes protons, electrons and neutrons.

  • Weak nuclear energy: This nuclear energy causes certain forms of radioactive decay. (1)

  • Electromagnetic energy: This is the energy which ties the atoms together within matter, and which also gives each its respective traits.

  • Gravity: It is the weakest form of energy known to us, but in the long run, is a focal form of energy, since it keeps all the celestial bodies in their respective positions.

Allah says:
And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all in an orbit, swimming. (21:33)

Allah says:
And the sun runs in a fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the Decree of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing. And the moon, for which We have determined phases [which it must traverse] till it becomes like an old dried curved date stalk. It is not allowable for the sun to reach the moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming (36:38-40)

In these verses, Allah states that the sun is traveling towards a certain direction. Previously, it was perceived that the sun was motionless. Modern day astronomers have affirmed that the sun moves in a certain direction. All planets in this solar system move, like satellites. The Earth’s orbit is concentric to the orbits of the planets.

Allah says:
By the heaven full of starry paths (51:7)

In Arabic, the word “Hubuk” (starry paths) has more than one meaning:

  • Perfection in creation: Astronomers calculate that there are two hundred billion galaxies in the known universe and about seventy billion trillion stars. Each galaxy varies in its size, shape, density, speed at which it is traveling on its axis, its distance from us, and the distance each is from the other, the stages it went through, its number of stars, and the life of each of their stars.

  • It also refers to a thing which is perfectly combined and integrated. These awesome numbers of galaxies and stars in the known portion of the universe is only 10% of the entire universe. There must be a power which keeps it all together, otherwise it would collapse and fall into chaos. Far removed is Allah from every imperfection, Who said: Indeed, Allah holds the heavens and the earth, lest they deviate from their orbits. And if they should ever deviate from their orbits, no one could hold them [in place] after Him. Indeed, He is Forbearing and forgiving (35:41)

  • It also refers to the orbits each celestial body floats within. Among the amazing things which has baffled scientists is the vast number of galaxies in the known portion of the universe. This proves that this universe is running in a perfect system.

Allah says:
It is He who made the sun a [source] of radiant light and the moon a light [reflected], and has determined for it phases so that you may know the number of years and to measure time. Allah has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know (10:5)

The perfect distinction made between light given off by a luminous, fiery body and light reflected from the sun by a dark, cold body (the moon), which is then reflected in a constant and steady manner (upon the earth) has been mentioned in the Qur’an over fourteen hundred years ago! This is among the many proofs that the Qur’an is Divine Revelation from Allah, Who is the Best Knower of that which He, Alone, has created.